Saturday, March 21, 2020
Nearly every normal family has one, and why not? TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re cute and cuddly, they love you, and people love them. After all, pets are normal commodities, owned by normal people. In this paper I will be examining the political economy of pets. First of all you may be thinking Ã¢â¬Å"do pets have a political economy?Ã¢â¬ Well, of course they do. The first article I stumbled across, and the article that truly inspired the theme of this paper, is Ã¢â¬Å"Go Go Dog!Ã¢â¬â¢ And German TurksÃ¢â¬â¢ Demand For Pet DogsÃ¢â¬ by A. Caglar. In this article the author discusses the functions of the pets that the German Turks own. There are three categories of dogs that are owned: The fighting dog, the guard dog, and the lap dog. Each dog serves a specific purpose, and therefore has certain ideal traits with which to serve that purpose. A guard dog is protective, and frightening; a fighting dog is macho, strong, and fierce; a lap dog is affectionate and loveable. People desiring to supplement their current identities with such traits own such dogs. The dogÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities become a part of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s image, and even status. I agree with the overview that Caglar presented in this article. Pets add certain qualities t o their owners by their actions, pedigrees, breeds, and behavior. In this paper I will be referring to dogs, as they are stereotypically the most common pet choice from within our culture. In America today, there are 43,143,849 dog owners owning a total of 61,542,900 million dogs. Of those 43,143,849 dog owners, 28,539,216 purchase Christmas gifts for their dogs. By examining that fact alone it is not surprising that the pet industry is expected to rake in $30 billion by the year 2003. The enormous growth of the pet industry is due to the new trend that shows Americans are becoming more interested in owning pets and less in the dwindling rate of population growth. Entrepreneurs acting on this trend seem to have struck it rich in regards to a consumer m... Free Essays on The Political Economy Of Pets Free Essays on The Political Economy Of Pets Nearly every normal family has one, and why not? TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re cute and cuddly, they love you, and people love them. After all, pets are normal commodities, owned by normal people. In this paper I will be examining the political economy of pets. First of all you may be thinking Ã¢â¬Å"do pets have a political economy?Ã¢â¬ Well, of course they do. The first article I stumbled across, and the article that truly inspired the theme of this paper, is Ã¢â¬Å"Go Go Dog!Ã¢â¬â¢ And German TurksÃ¢â¬â¢ Demand For Pet DogsÃ¢â¬ by A. Caglar. In this article the author discusses the functions of the pets that the German Turks own. There are three categories of dogs that are owned: The fighting dog, the guard dog, and the lap dog. Each dog serves a specific purpose, and therefore has certain ideal traits with which to serve that purpose. A guard dog is protective, and frightening; a fighting dog is macho, strong, and fierce; a lap dog is affectionate and loveable. People desiring to supplement their current identities with such traits own such dogs. The dogÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities become a part of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s image, and even status. I agree with the overview that Caglar presented in this article. Pets add certain qualities t o their owners by their actions, pedigrees, breeds, and behavior. In this paper I will be referring to dogs, as they are stereotypically the most common pet choice from within our culture. In America today, there are 43,143,849 dog owners owning a total of 61,542,900 million dogs. Of those 43,143,849 dog owners, 28,539,216 purchase Christmas gifts for their dogs. By examining that fact alone it is not surprising that the pet industry is expected to rake in $30 billion by the year 2003. The enormous growth of the pet industry is due to the new trend that shows Americans are becoming more interested in owning pets and less in the dwindling rate of population growth. Entrepreneurs acting on this trend seem to have struck it rich in regards to a consumer m...
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Solicitar visa de turista a EE.UU. desde otro paÃ s Si se deseaÃ solicitar una visa de turista (paseo o placer) para los Estados Unidos en un paÃ s que no es el de residencia habitual se deben seguir una serie de reglas porque no siempre es posible. EstaÃ solicitud se conoce en inglÃ ©s como peticiÃ ³n de Third Country Nationals o TCNs, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s.Ã Cundo no se puede solicitar visa de turista en MÃ ©xico, Canad o Bahamas Puede ocurrir que una persona extranjera se encuentre de visita en MÃ ©xico, Canad o Bahamas y, debido a su proximidad, desee ingresar tambiÃ ©n a EE.UU. y, si no tiene visa de turista, considere en pedirla en ese momento. SegÃ ºn las normas actuales, en los siguientes dos casos no pueden solicitar visa de turista para Estados Unidos en MÃ ©xico, Canad o Bahamas las personas que no sonÃ ciudadanas o residentes habituales de esos distritos cuando: En primer lugar, los solicitantes hubieran estado ilegalmente en algÃ ºn momento en los Estados Unidos. El caso ms frecuente es el de los extranjeros que no salieron dentro del plazo permitido provocando lo que se conoce en inglÃ ©s como overstay de la visa. Estas personas obligatoriamente deben solicitar la nueva visa en un consulado de los Estados Unidos en el paÃ s del que son nacionales o en el que residen habitualmente. En segundo lugar, todos los ciudadanos de los paÃ ses que Estados Unidos clasifica oficialmente como patrocinadores de terrorismo. En la actualidad, los paÃ ses incluidos en dicha lista son Corea del Norte, Irn, Sudn y Siria. Adems, debe tenerse en cuenta que en los casos en los que sÃ se puede solicitar la visa es habitual que los consulados estadounidenses que se encuentran ubicados en las ciudades fronterizas de MÃ ©xico con Estados Unidos y de Canad con EE.UU. no procesen, como regla general, las visas de turista para extranjeros que no son ni ciudadanos mexicanos ni residentes en ese paÃ s. Asimismo, dichos consulados ubicados a lo largo de la frontera tampoco tramitan habitualmente ninguna visa E si el solicitante no reside habitualmente en esa rea.Ã Hay diversos tipos de visas E, desde inmigrantes o las no inmigrantes de inversiÃ ³n.Ã En los dems casos, se puede solicitar una visa de turista para Estados Unidos en cualquier embajada o consulado. En el caso de haber estado previamente como ilegal en Estados Unidos o de haber violado las condiciones de la visa, asegurarse primero de que es posible hacerlo en el consulado de elecciÃ ³n. Sin embargo,el que pueda solicitarse la visa en otro consulado no quiere decir que sea recomendable. Hay que evitar dar la impresiÃ ³n de que se est buscando y comparando para decidirse por el consulado que podrÃ a juzgarse como ms permisivo a la hora de aprobar una visa. Esta prctica es lo que se conoce en inglÃ ©s con el nombre de consulate shopping. Adems, por motivos prcticos puede ser ms difÃ cil en estos casos de solicitudes presentadas fuera del paÃ s de residencia habitual acreditar lazos familiares y econÃ ³micos fuertes en el paÃ s en el que se reside, que es un requisito fundamental para sacar la visa de turista. Por Ã ºltimo, cabe destacar que aunque sÃ que es cierto que los porcentajes de aprobaciÃ ³n de la visa son diferentes por paÃ ses, no menos cierto es que la ley migratoria es la misma y se aplica por igual en todos los consulados de EE.UU. Cundo no es necesaria la visa de turista Los ciudadanos de 38 paÃ ses estn dispensados de solicitar la visa de turista si desean ingresar a Estados Unidos por un mximo de 90 dÃ as.Ã Este privilegio tambiÃ ©n aplica, con carcter general, a las personas con doble nacionalidad y que tienen uno de esos pasaportes, aunque residan habitualmente en un paÃ s que sÃ necesita visa.Ã Sin embargo, hay que tener en cuenta que lo que no se puede hacer es intentar utilizar uno de esos pasaportes que no requieren visa, como por ejemplo el italiano, el espaÃ ±ol o el chileno, cuando ya se ha tenido previamente una negaciÃ ³n de visa con el otro pasaporte, como por ejemplo el argentino, el venezolano, etc. Puntos Clave: solicitar visa turista para EE.UU. desde paÃ s en el que no se reside habitualmente Las peticiones de una visa de turista para EE.UU. en un paÃ s diferente al de residencia habitual o al de la propia nacionalidad siguen unas reglas que se conocen como Third Country Nationals.Estas son las reglas que aplican a MÃ ©xico, Canad y Bahamas paÃ ses que, por su proximidad geogrfica a los Estados Unidos, son de interÃ ©s para los potenciales solicitantes de visa.No pueden solicitar visa de turista en MÃ ©xico, Canad o Bahamas los ciudadanos de terceros paÃ ses que previamente han estado en EE.UU. en situaciÃ ³n de ilegalidad o que violaron las condiciones de sus visas.Tampoco pueden solicitarlas ls personas con pasaportes de paÃ ses declarados como patrocinadores de terrorismo: Irn, Corea del Norte, Siria y Sudn.AÃ ºn en los casos en los que se puede solicitar la visa de turista, los consulados americanos a lo largo de la frontera entre MÃ ©xico y EE.UU. y Canad y EE.UU. solamente tramitan las solicitudes de los residentes en su distrito.AÃ ºn en los casos en los que est permitido sin ninguna restricciÃ ³n pedir la visa de turista en otro paÃ s, por ejemplo, un argentino en Colombia, debe evitarse dar la impresiÃ ³n de estar haciendo lo que se conoce como consulate shopping.Los requisitos para obtener la visa americana son los mismos en todos los consulados y embajadas. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Influences of communism in Amerian culture - Essay Example But the question is whether these two authors were committed to uphold communist ideals. Also in a round-about way, the question can be asked whether they were aware of MarxistÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on their works, or they continued writing the texts to uphold life as it is, while being indifferent to communist ideals. Since commitment to a particular political ideology is the violation of an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to the artistic portrayal of life as it is, the presence of communist themes in SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Grapes of WrathÃ¢â¬ and OdetsÃ¢â¬â¢ appears to be a simple coincidence. Therefore it does not necessarily mean that these pieces of literature would not have been possible without the work of Marx, Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ , but communist zeal happens to construct the major themes of the texts. Reflections of Communist Ideals: Coincidence or Commitment? Indeed Ã¢â¬Å"The Grapes of WrathÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for LeftyÃ¢â¬ are the fictional forms of MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ . ... Throughout the whole novel, Tom develops from an exploited and passive migrant proletarian to an active communist whose finalized decision is to Ã¢â¬Å"point out and bring to the front the common interests of the entire proletariatÃ¢â¬ (Marx and Engels 68). According to Ã¢â¬Å"the Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ , this goal is one of the two criteria that distinguish a communist from other proletarians. Transformation from Oppressed Proletariat to an Ideal Communist With the progress of the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Grapes of WrathÃ¢â¬ , the readers are provided with the scopes of being prepared to embrace the central characterÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation towards communist ideals. In the beginning of the novel, the readers simply become introduced with miseries and distresses of a working class family that migrates from Oklahoma to California with a hope for better living. The readers experience the struggles of a proletariatÃ¢â¬â¢s world through Joads family and Tom is still an outsider in the world of communism. Meanwhile the emotional plot for allowing the readers to experience the growth of the working class parties is prepared. Also at the same time, the readers experience the conflicts between the workers and the labor-exploiter Bourgeois class. At this point the workers -to some extent, the readers also- feel helpless and desperately the need of being organized in the face of mightier Bourgeoisies. Thus at the death of Jim Casey, Tom fills up his position as a self-committed communist. Unlike SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to uphold the individual transformation towards communism, Odets shows collective or class transformation. Through flat and simplistic characterizations he tries to say where there is class-oppression and class-exploitation in a
Monday, February 3, 2020
Research methods for business and management - Essay Example In a good research, the abstract should represent what the research entails. The abstract provides an adequate summery of the research in term of the used literature, the methodology, findings, analysis techniques, and an aspect of conclusion with respect to the research findings. The introduction introduced the entire research and shows what the researcher intends to do through research questions and objectives. The article, Ã¢â¬Å"Factors influencing the transition to university service mathematics: part 2 a qualitative study,Ã¢â¬ by Miriam Liston and John OÃ¢â¬â¢Donoghue, is a research whose abstract is clear as it specifies the type of study as qualitative. It also clarifies what the researchers intended to find out. The study in the article was carried out to establish the influence of effective variables, role of mathematics conceptions, and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ approaches to learning (COHEN, MANION, and MORRISON 2000). The abstract also indicate the placement of the research study by pointing out that the study was done at the University of Limerick, in the service mathematics transition. The abstract explains further the nature of the study as a follow-up to an earlier study, which was quantitative. It goes further to point out the focus group as part of the methodology (LEEDY and ORMROD 2001). Other sections of the research, which are pointed out in the abstract is the tools used in data collection. The Abstracts points out the major sections but fails to introduce the research findings (Center for Civic Partnerships 2007). The research findings are critical at this section for the readers to follow up how the researchers got into the given conclusion. It only indicates what the findings and the respective consequences would enable the researchers to envisage the possibility of future problems as far as Ireland mathematic education is concerned (LISTON and OÃ¢â¬â¢DONOGHUE 2010). The introduction section introduces the research context in an inadequa te way. The introduction connects the abstract by further indicating that the study is a follow-up research to an earlier conducted quantitative study. It repeats some aspects of the abstract such as the location where the study was conducted, the focus group, and time of the study without providing future elaborations on the same research aspects (Crossman 2013). The problem is however elaborated as being the Ã¢â¬Å"The Mathematics Problem,Ã¢â¬ in which case students fail in mathematics thus facing problems to pursue mathematics courses and careens as their of choices. The introduction lacks the respective research question. This aspect could make the research lost somewhere within the research process. The researchers introduce a case of worrying findings specifically from recent reports, which in contrast should have been placed in the literature review section. The introduction indicates the uniqueness and originality of the research. The thesis statement is also indicated bu t it hardly addresses what the research intends to do adequately. The researchers indicate that the qualitative aspect of the study with respect to the previously conducted quantitative research helps the researchers to determine the strengths as well as the depths of the affected variablesÃ¢â¬â¢
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Ryman Is Famous For Customer Service Marketing Essay Introduction Ryman is famous for customer service. Everyone who works at the 237 Ryman stores nationwide aims to deliver the best possible customer experience to everyone who visits the specialist stationery stores.Ã This is achieved through a number of routes, including the companys investment in training so that people in the stores have an in-depth knowledge of their product range. Employees feel valued by the organization that encourages them to come up with bright ideas that are then shared within the business.Ã As well as being the nations high street stationery specialist, many Ryman stores offer additional services to customers. For example, many stores have a photocopier machine for customers to use and all stores provide printed stationery.Ã Other services range from document binding, a fax service, a photo booth, laminating, and a bulk copying service. Some stores usually based in the larger cities have a Copy Shop where all these services are offered. There are four Ryman stores that also have a Post Office. Industrial Plan Industry analysis is a tool that facilitates a companys understanding of its position relative to other companies that produce similar products or services. Understanding the forces at work in the overall industry is an important component of effective strategic planning. Industry analysis enables small business owners to identify the threats and opportunities facing their businesses, and to focus their resources on developing unique capabilities that could lead to a competitive advantage. Many small business owners and executives consider themselves at worst victims, and at best observers of what goes on in their industry. They sometimes fail to perceive that understanding your industry directly impacts your ability to succeed. Understanding your industry and anticipating its future trends and directions gives you the knowledge you need to react and control your portion of that industry, Kenneth J. Cook wrote in his book The AMA Complete Guide to Strategic Planning for Small Business.However, your analysis of this is significant only in a relative sense. Since both you and your competitors are in the same industry, the key is in finding the differing abilities between you and the competition in dealing with the industry forces that impact you. If you can identify abilities you have that are superior to competitors, you can use that ability to establish a competitive advantage. http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/industry-analysis An industry analysis consists of three major elements: the underlying forces at work in the industry; the overall attractiveness of the industry; and the critical factors that determine a companys success within the industry. The premier model for analyzing the structure of industries was developed by Michael E. Porter in his classic 1980 book Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Porters model shows that rivalry among firms in industry depends upon five forces: the potential for new competitors to enter the market; the bargaining power of buyers and suppliers; the availability of substitute goods; and the competitors and nature of competition. These factors are outlined below. INDUSTRY FORCES The first step in performing an industry analysis is to assess the impact of Porters five forces. The collective strength of these forces determines the ultimate profit potential in the industry, where profit potential is measured in terms of long term return on invested capital, Porter stated. The goal of competitive strategy for a business unit in an industry is to find a position in the industry where the company can best defend itself against these competitive forces or can influence them in its favor. Understanding the underlying forces determining the structure of the industry can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of a small business, show where strategic changes can make the greatest difference, and illuminate areas where industry trends may turn into opportunities or threats. http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/industry-analysis EASE OF ENTRY Ease of entry refers to how easy or difficult it is for a new firm to begin competing in the industry. The ease of entry into an industry is important because it determines the likelihood that a company will face new competitors. In industries that are easy to enter, sources of competitive advantage tend to wane quickly. On the other hand, in industries that are difficult to enter, sources of competitive advantage last longer, and firms also tend to benefit from having a constant set of competitors. The ease of entry into an industry depends upon two factors: the reaction of existing competitors to new entrants; and the barriers to market entry that prevail in the industry. Existing competitors are most likely to react strongly against new entrants when there is a history of such behavior, when the competitors have invested substantial resources in the industry, and when the industry is characterized by slow growth. Some of the major barriers to market entry include economies of scale, high capital requirements, switching costs for the customer, limited access to the channels of distribution, a high degree of product differentiation, and restrictive government policies. POWER OF SUPPLIERS Suppliers can gain bargaining power within an industry through a number of different situations. For example, suppliers gain power when an industry relies on just a few suppliers, when there are no substitutes available for the suppliers product, when there are switching costs associated with changing suppliers, when each purchaser accounts for just a small portion of the suppliers business, and when suppliers have the resources to move forward in the chain of distribution and take on the role of their customers. Supplier power can affect the relationship between a small business and its customers by influencing the quality and price of the final product. All of these factors combined will affect your ability to compete, Cook noted. They will impact your ability to use your supplier relationship to establish competitive advantages with your customers. http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/industry-analysis POWER OF BUYERS The reverse situation occurs when bargaining power rests in the hands of buyers. Powerful buyers can exert pressure on small businesses by demanding lower prices, higher quality, or additional services, or by playing competitors off one another. The power of buyers tends to increase when single customers account for large volumes of the businesss product, when a substitutes are available for the product, when the costs associated with switching suppliers are low, and when buyers possess the resources to move backward in the chain of distribution. AVAILABILITY OF SUBSTITUTES All firms in an industry are competing, in a broad sense, with industries producing substitute products. Substitutes limit the potential returns of an industry by placing a ceiling on the prices firms in the industry can profitably charge, Porter explained. Product substitution occurs when a small businesss customer comes to believe that a similar product can perform the same function at a better price. Substitution can be subtle-for example, insurance agents have gradually moved into the investment field formerly controlled by financial planners-or sudden-for example, compact disc technology has taken the place of vinyl record albums. The main defense available against substitution is product differentiation. By forming a deep understanding of the customer, some companies are able to create demand specifically for their products. http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/industry-analysis COMPETITORS The battle you wage against competitors is one of the strongest industry forces with which you contend, according to Cook. Competitive battles can take the form of price wars, advertising campaigns, new product introductions, or expanded service offerings-all of which can reduce the profitability of firms within an industry. The intensity of competition tends to increase when an industry is characterized by a number of well-balanced competitors, a slow rate of industry growth, high fixed costs, or a lack of differentiation between products. Another factor increasing the intensity of competition is high exit barriers-including specialized assets, emotional ties, government or social restrictions, strategic inter-relationships with other business units, labor agreements, or other fixed costs-which make competitors stay and fight even when they find the industry unprofitable. http://www.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/industry-analysis http://kelas.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/porters-five-forces-model.jpg Production Plan Production planning is the function of establishing an overall level of output, called the production plan. The process also includes any other activities needed to satisfy current planned levels of sales, while meeting the firms general objectives regarding profit, productivity, lead times, and customer satisfaction, as expressed in the overall business plan. The managerial objective of production planning is to develop an integrated game plan where the operations portion is the production plan. This production plan, then, should link the firms strategic goals to operations (the production function) as well as coordinating operations with sales objectives, resource availability, and financial budgets. The production-planning process requires the comparison of sales requirements and production capabilities and the inclusion of budgets, pro forma financial statements, and supporting plans for materials and workforce requirements, as well as the production plan itself. A primary purpose of the production plan is to establish production rates that will achieve managements objective of satisfying customer demand. Demand satisfaction could be accomplished through the maintaining, raising, or lowering of inventories or backlogs, while keeping the workforce relatively stable. If the firm has implemented a just-in-time philosophy, the firm would utilize a chase strategy, which would mean satisfying customer demand while keeping inventories at a minimum level. The term production planning is really too limiting since the intent is not to purely produce a plan for the operations function. Because the plan affects many firm functions, it is normally prepared with information from marketing and coordinated with the functions of manufacturing, engineering, finance, materials, and so on. Another term, sales and operations planning, has recently come into use, more accurately representing the concern with coordinating several critical activities within the firm. The production plan also provides direct communication and consistent dialogue between the operations function and upper management, as well as between operations and the firms other functions. As such, the production plan must necessarily be stated in terms that are meaningful to all within the firm, not just the operations executive. Some firms state the production plan as the dollar value of total input (monthly, quarterly, etc.). Other firms may break the total output down by individual factories or major product lines. Still other firms state the plan in terms of total units for each product line. The key here is that the plan be stated in some homogeneous unit, commonly understood by all, that is also consistent with that used in other plans. PRODUCTION SCHEDULING The production schedule is derived from the production plan; it is a plan that authorized the operations function to produce a certain quantity of an item within a specified time frame. In a large firm, the production schedule is drawn in the production planning department, whereas, within a small firm, a production schedule could originate with a lone production scheduler or even a line supervisor. Production scheduling has three primary goals or objectives. The first involves due dates and avoiding late completion of jobs. The second goal involves throughput times; the firm wants to minimize the time a job spends in the system, from the opening of a shop order until it is closed or completed. The third goal concerns the utilization of work centers. Firms usually want to fully utilize costly equipment and personnel. Often, there is conflict among the three objectives. Excess capacity makes for better due-date performance and reduces throughput time but wreaks havoc on utilization. Releasing extra jobs to the shop can increase the utilization rate and perhaps improve due-date performance but tends to increase throughput time. Quite a few sequencing rules (for determining the sequence in which production orders are to be run in the production schedule) have appeared in research and in practice. Some well-known ones adapted from Vollmann, Berry, Whybark and Jacobs (2005) are presented in Operations Scheduling. THE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND PRODUCTION SCHEDULING INTERFACE There are fundamental differences in production planning and production scheduling. Planning models often utilize aggregate data, cover multiple stages in a medium-range time frame, in an effort to minimize total costs. Scheduling models use detailed information, usually for a single stage or facility over a short term horizon, in an effort to complete jobs in a timely manner. Despite these differences, planning and scheduling often have to be incorporated into a single framework, share information, and interact extensively with one another. They also may interact with other models such as forecasting models or facility location models. It should be noted that a major shift in direction has occurred in recent research on scheduling methods. Much of what was discussed was developed for job shops. As a result of innovations such as computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) and just-in-time (JIT), new processes being established in todays firms are designed to capture the benefits of repetitive manufacturing and continuous flow manufacturing. Therefore, much of the new scheduling research concerns new concepts and techniques for repetitive manufacturing-type operations. In addition, many of todays firms cannot plan and schedule only within the walls of their own factory as most are an entity with an overall supply chain. Supply chain management requires the coordination and integration of operations in all stages of the chain. If successive stages in a supply belong to the same firm, then these successive stages can be incorporated into a single planning and scheduling model. If not, constant interaction and information sharing are required to optimize the overall supply chain. productdevelpment Operational Plan AnÃ operational planningÃ is a subset of strategic work plan. It describes short-term ways of achieving milestones and explains how, or what portion of, a strategic plan will be put into operation during a given operational period, in the case of commercial application, a fiscal year or another given budgetary term. An operational plan is the basis for, and justification of an annual operating budget request. Therefore, a five-year strategic plan would need five operational plans funded by five operating budgets. Operational plans should establish the activities and budgets for each part of the organization for the next 1 3 years. They link the strategic plan with the activities the organization will deliver and the resources required to deliver them. An operational plan draws directly from agency and program strategic plans to describe agency and program missions and goals, program objectives, and program activities. Like a strategic plan, an operational plan addresses four questions: Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we get there? How do we measure our progress? The OP is both the first and the last step in preparing an operating budget request. As the first step, the OP provides a plan for resource allocation; as the last step, the OP may be modified to reflect policy decisions or financial changes made during the budget development process. Operational plans should be prepared by the people who will be involved in implementation. There is often a need for significant cross-departmental dialogue as plans created by one part of the organisation inevitably have implications for other parts. Operational plans should contain: clear objectives activities to be delivered quality standards desired outcomes staffing and resource requirements implementation timetables a process for monitoring progress. Helping StudentsÃ Budgeting can be difficult for students, which is why Ryman offers a discount on line of 12.5% for extra NUS customers. All you need to do is enter your card number in the shopping basket page or show your card in store.Ã If you are student but not a member of NUS Extra, you can receive a 10% discount in store if you show your student ID.Ã Helping those Looking for Gift IdeasÃ The great thing about stationery is that it is always useful, so it is an ideal gift for the practically-minded. You can now buy special pre-paidÃ gift cardsÃ at various prices. Helping sport the Ryman LeagueÃ Ryman are proud sponsors of the Isthmian Football League, called the Ryman League. The clubs are highly supportive of the companys charity fundraising and played with red footballs in support of the Red Nose Day and Sport Relief, as well as organising bucket collections.Ã Helping those in NeedÃ The business has a great track record in supportingÃ good causesÃ and raised half a million pounds for Red Nose Day in 2009 and over Ã £225,000 forÃ Sport ReliefÃ this year.Ã Employee fundraising is encouraged at all levels.Ã Ryman peopleÃ The companys dynamic Chief Executive Officer, Kypros Kyprianou, says that business should be fun, as well as being about making money. Perhaps this is why the company holds conferences for employees twice a year and encourages high performance through bonus schemes.Ã The high level of employee satisfaction might explain the low turnover of employees within the business, something that is very unusual within the competitive retail industry.Ã It is the belief of ChairmanÃ Theo Paphitis, who is the Skillsmart Retail Apprentices Champion, that happy employees provide the best possible customer service.Ã All store employees have to be thoroughly trained before they can serve a customer, not least because they need to be aware of legislation relating to the sale of various goods. Training is then run on an on-going basis, resulting in employees joining the companys own Five Star Training program.Ã In addition, the company has just set up a Retail Academy that is currently training groups of store employees who are gaining a new qualification while working and so far the feedback has been very positive all round.Ã Ryman is a supporter of theÃ retail trustÃ charity which offers a confidential counselling service to retail employees.Ã Product Range and SourcingÃ Product quality is important to Ryman and the company makes sure that all suppliers comply with the code of ethical trading (The Ethical Trading Initiative Base Code) and continues to monitor these standards on a regular basis. Like all forward-thinking companies, Ryman aims to minimize its carbon emissions and has put plans in place to achieve this important aim. Marketing plan AÃ marketing planÃ is a business document written for the purpose of describing the current market position of a business and itsÃ marketing strategyÃ for the period covered by the marketing plan. Marketing plans usually have a life of from one to five years. Purpose of a Marketing Plan The purpose of creating a marketing plan is to clearly show what steps will be undertaken to achieve the business marketing objectives. While some small business owners include their marketing plan as part of their overall business plan, if a business owner follows the recommended SBA format, parts of the marketing plan will be included in the various areas of the business plan. As an alternative, the marketing plan may be attached in its entirety as an appendix to a business plan. Whats in a Marketing Plan? A typical small business marketing plan might include a description of its competitors, the demand for the product or service, and the strengths and weaknesses from a market standpoint of both the business and its competitors. Other elements usually contained in a marketing plan include: Description of the product or service, including special features Marketing budget, including the advertising and promotional plan Description of the business location, including advantages and disadvantages for marketing Pricing strategy Market segmentation (specializing in specific niche markets or, if mass marketing, how marketing strategy might differ between different segments, such as age groups). Behind the corporate objectives, which in themselves offer the main context for the marketing plan, will lie the corporate mission, which in turn provides the context for these corporate objectives. In a sales-oriented organization, the marketing planning function designs incentive pay plans to not only motivate and reward frontline staff fairly but also to align marketing activities with corporate mission. This corporate mission can be thought of as a definition of what the organization is, of what it does: Our business is. This definition should not be too narrow, or it will constrict the development of the organization; a too rigorous concentration on the view that We are in the business of making meat-scales, as IBM was during the early 1900s, might have limited its subsequent development into other areas. On the other hand, it should not be too wide or it will become meaningless; We want to make a profit is not too helpful in developing specific plans. Abell suggested that the definition should cover three dimensions: customer groups to be served, customer needs to be served, and technologies to be utilized. Thus, the definition of IBMs corporate mission in the 1940s might well have been: We are in the business of handling accounting information [customer need] for the larger US organizations [customer group] by means of punched cardsÃ [technology]. Perhaps the most important factor in successful marketing is the corporate vision. Surprisingly, it is largely neglected by marketing textbooks, although not by the popular exponents of corporate strategy indeed, it was perhaps the main theme of the book by Peters and Waterman, in the form of their Super ordinate Goals. In Search of Excellence said: Nothing drives progress like the imagination. The idea precedes the deed.Ã If the organization in general, and its chief executive in particular, has a strong vision of where its future lies, then there is a good chance that the organization will achieve a strong position in its markets (and attain that future). This will be not least because its strategies will be consistent and will be supported by its staff at all levels. In this context, all of IBMs marketing activities were underpinned by its philosophy of customer service, a vision originally promoted by the charismatic Watson dynasty. The emphasis at this stage is on obtaining a complete and accurate picture. A traditional albeit product-based format for a brand reference book (or, indeed, a marketing facts book) was suggested by Godley more than three decades ago: Financial data-Facts for this section will come fromÃ management accounting, costing and finance sections. Product data-From production, research and development. Sales and distribution data Sales, packaging, distribution sections. Advertising,Ã sales promotion, merchandising data Information from these departments. Market data and miscellany FromÃ market research, who would in most cases act as a source for this information. His sources of data, however, assume the resources of a very large organization. In most organizations they would be obtained from a much smaller set of people (and not a few of them would be generated by the marketing manager alone). It is apparent that a marketing audit can be a complex process, but the aim is simple:Ã it is only to identify those existing (external and internal) factors which will have a significant impact on the future plans of the company.Ã It is clear that theÃ basicÃ material to be input to the marketing audit should be comprehensive. Accordingly, the best approach is to accumulate this material continuously, as and when it becomes available; since this avoids the otherwise heavy workload involved in collecting it as part of the regular, typically annual, planning process itself when time is usually at a premium. Even so, the first task of thisÃ annualÃ process should be to check that the material held in the currentÃ facts bookÃ orÃ facts filesÃ actuallyÃ isÃ comprehensive and accurate, and can form a sound basis for the marketing audit itself. The structure of the facts book will be designed to match the specific needs of the organization, but one simple format suggested by Malcolm McDonald may be applicable in many cases. This splits the material into three groups: Review of the marketing environment. A study of the organizations markets, customers, competitors and the overall economic, political, cultural and technical environment; covering developing trends, as well as the current situation. Review of the detailed marketing activity.Ã A study of the companysÃ marketing mix; in terms of the 7 Ps (see below) Review of the marketing system.Ã A study of the marketing organization,Ã marketing researchÃ systems and the current marketing objectives and strategies. The last of these is too frequently ignored. The marketing system itself needs to be regularly questioned, because the validity of the whole marketing plan is reliant upon the accuracy of the input from this system, and `garbage in, garbage out applies with a vengeance. Portfolio planning.Ã In addition, the coordinated planning of the individual products and services can contribute towards the balanced portfolio. 80:20 rule.Ã To achieve the maximum impact, the marketing plan must be clear, concise and simple. It needs to concentrate on the 20 percent of products or services, and on the 20 percent of customers, which will account for 80 percent of the volume and 80 percent of the profit. 7 Ps: Product, Place, Price and Promotion, Physical Environment, People, Process. The 7 Ps can sometimes divert attention from the customer, but the framework they offer can be very useful in building the action plans. Financial plan A financial plan consists of sets ofÃ financial statementÃ that forecast the resource implications of making business decisions. For example, a company that is deciding to expand e.g. by buying and fitting out a new factory will create a financial plan which considers the resources required and the financial performance that will justify their use. You can see from this statement that the financial plan will need to take into account sources of finance, costs of finance, costs of developing the project, as well as the revenues and likely profits to justify the expansion program.Ã Planning models may consist of thousands of calculations. Typically these plans will be constructed with the aid of forecasting models and spreadsheets that can calculate and recalculate figures such as profit, cash flows and balance sheets simply by changing the assumptions. For example, the business may want to do one set of calculations for low, medium, and high demand figures for its products. Financial plans Financial plans are typically made out for a given time period, e.g. one, three or five years. The length of the time considered depends on the importance of projecting into the future and the reliability of estimates the further we consider the future. Long-term plans are created for major strategic decisions made by a business such as: take over and merger activity expansion of capacity development of new products overseas expansion. In addition financial planning will be carried out for shorter time spans. For example, annual budgets will be created which can be analysed by month and by cost centre. Short term financial plans then provide targets for junior and middle management, and a measure against which actual performance can be monitored and controlled. In addition it is normal practice for a business to prepare a three- or five-year plan in less detail, which is updated annually. AÃ budgetÃ is a short term financial plan. It is sometimes referred to as a plan expressed in money but it is more accurately described as a plan involving numbers. A cost centre is defined by CIMA as a production or service location, function, activity or item of equipment whose costs may be attributed to cost units. This Financial Plan template will help you to identify the: Types of labour costs to be incurred during the project Items of equipment needed to deliver the project Various materials needed by the project Unit costs for labor, equipment and materials Other costs types such as administration Amount of contingency needed You can then use the Financial Plan template to create a budget by: Calculating the total cost involved in completing the project Identifying the total cost of each project activity Creating a schedule of expenses Creating a project budget is an extremely important part in any project, as it gives you aÃ goal postÃ to aim for. This Financial Plan will help you meet that goal post, by giving you a clear process and template for creating a budget for your project. http://www.myrightplan.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Financial-planning-process.jpg
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Dead White Males DAVID WILLIAMSON Make Love not Warcraft SOUTH PARK (SEASON 10 EPISODE 8) INTRO The role and function of satirical texts is ultimately to expose the follies and vices that we see today in contemporary society. Satire may be effectively defined as a device used to highlight and the expose the failures of human nature in society.Two texts in particular, Dead White Males by David Williamson and a particular episode of South Park named Ã¢â¬ËMake Love not WarcraftÃ¢â¬â¢ will be spoken upon, one satirising the follies in the educational system through a very arrogant and narrow minded aspect and the other ridiculing those people who play World of Warcraft. Satirical techniques such as caricature, understatements, situational irony and characterization are all used to effectively satirise and expose human vices and hypocrisy. WoW CARICATUREThroughout the Southpark episode Ã¢â¬ËMake Love not WarcraftÃ¢â¬â¢ it is evident that it caricatures the stereotypical heavy Worl d of Warcraft players. Through the use of caricature we are able to understand that the social roles of those who partake in the digital game reach a point where they do not leave their keyboard. In this particular text the four main protagonists become increasingly obese, lazy and unsocial. Give an actual example of one of the characters. Explain the caricature Ã¢â¬â their exaggerated physical attributes and the exaggereated aspects of their personas as WoW players.The follies of the digital world are intemperately exaggerated within the text so as to highlight and reinforce the absurdity of the social and physical sacrifices made by some people in the real world in order to be part of the World of Warcraft. A very visible example of this within the text of Ã¢â¬ËMake Love not WarcraftÃ¢â¬â¢ is where one of the main protagonists, Cartmen, suggest that they sacrifice all but three hours of their day in order to level up their characters for the following seven and a half weeks in order to face their rival.This is a clear technique of caricature and parody as they reenact what some might do in the real world. DWM CARICATURE In contrast, within the text of Ã¢â¬ËDead White MalesÃ¢â¬â¢ there is much dramatization surrounding the traditional roles of males and females. Shakespeare argues that from the moment of birth it has been in a males nature to wear boyish clothes and play with toy cars, and in a girls nature to wear skirts and play with dolls. In response to this Swain argues that ShakespearesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory was incorrect, rather it was society that had invented the nature in which males and females should act.Angela Judd, the main protagonist in the play questions her grandfather Col on the topic of her father Martin Judd, unemployed and supported by his dominant wife Sarah. Angela quotes: Ã¢â¬Å"He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit the traditional male role did he? Ã¢â¬ In return Col argues: Ã¢â¬Å"If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up for yourself you sink, male or fe male. Ã¢â¬ This particular quote by Col reinforces the theory of SwainsÃ¢â¬â¢ that the way in which males and females were taught to act, this links to the satirical technique of caricature.There is also an element of Inversion within this as the characters have been given opposite roles in order to ridicule. The social roles and behaviours of AngelasÃ¢â¬â¢ parents are ridiculed as her mother is portayed as dominant over her father. WoW UNDERSTATEMENT Another satirical technique that is used almost always throughout the South Park series is an understatement. Defined as being the opposite to exaggeration it may be used to address something very casual in a serious manner.An example of this is found midway through the Ã¢â¬ËMake Love not WarcraftÃ¢â¬â¢ episode whereas one of the main protagonists, Cartmen, addresses his friend Butters in quite a threatening manner, quoting: Ã¢â¬Å"Butters, go buy World of Warcraft, install it on your computer and join the online sensation b efore we all murder you. Ã¢â¬ This example of understatement links directly back to the technique of caricature, once again highlighting the absurdity of their immoral social behaviour when on the topic of World of Warcraft. DWM CHARACTERIZATIONThroughout the text of Ã¢â¬ËDead White MalesÃ¢â¬â¢ there is a bitter satirical comment on many of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s familiar poses of sexual and political rectitude, it also conveys the topics of deconstruction in human nature and the nature of male and female relationships. Grant Swain, a university lecturer takes our attention in both the first and second scene by lecturing us on his subjective views of society and literature. The satirical technique of characterization (THIS IS CARICATURE) portrays Grant Swain as very opinionated, an intellectual fascist whoÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to indoctrinate not educate.As the story progresses there are many stereotypes that are formed showing Swain in a very negative light, one of these stereotypes inc ludes that he is an ageing and belittled university lecturer who wishes to achieve a patriarchal and charismatic figure amongst his younger students. It is therefore clear that Grant Swain is used in order to satirise the vices of the educational system. WoW SITUATIONAL IRONY Situational irony, which is also commonly used throughout the South Park series is simply when something happens and as a result the reversal of expectations may occur.Cartmen once again reappears and as before mentioned suggests that the four of them continue to play and level their characters sacrificing all but three hours of their day to the game in order to face their rival, someone who is considered to have no life. Cartmen then quotes: Ã¢â¬ËWhat do you say guys? You can just hang outside in the sun all day tossing a ball around or you can sit at your computer and do something that mattersÃ¢â¬ To the viewers amazement, they do so, linking to the element of Situational Irony and once again back to car icature as their their social behavioursÃ¢â¬â¢ alter for the duration of their involvement with World of Warcraft.DWM SITUATIONAL IRONY In contrast, Grant Swain, being previously portrayed as quite opinionated is also characterized to the reader through the use of situational irony. In the first few scenes of the play Swain quotes Ã¢â¬Å"the dominant ideology has constructed a female stereotypeÃ¢â¬ this also links directly back to the dramatization of the traditional roles of sexes. Verbal irony is shown soon after as Angela counters his theory quoting Ã¢â¬Å"your average woman may find swaggering macho master far more attractive than intellectÃ¢â¬ .This in turn sheds Swain in a negative light as being stereotypical, previously referring to himself as an Ã¢â¬Ëaverage womanÃ¢â¬â¢, satirising the hypocrisy of humans and in particular linking back to Swains characterization as an intellectual facist. CONCLUSION All things considered through both texts Ã¢â¬ËDead White Males Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËMake Love not WarcraftÃ¢â¬â¢ we are able to understand that the roles and functions of satirical texts in contemporary society are crucially important and particularly illustrated through the use of satirical techniques.
Friday, January 10, 2020
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